2011年北航语言学与语言哲学国际论坛通知 (1号)
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Ernest Lepore
Matthew Stone
Convention and Implicit Meanings
Peter Ludlow
The Dynamic Lexicon: How Word Meanings and Conceptual Pacts are Negotiated
Paul Pietroski
Meanings as Instructions for How to Build Concepts

Convention and Implicit Meanings
This talk pursues a neglected distinction in the Gricean program: the distinction between the information a speaker intends to get across by an utterance and does mean, and the information he intends to get across but does not mean. One can agree that language use is purposeful activity and still deny that speaker meaning includes everything a speaker recognizably intends to get across with an utterance. Speakers have many ways to get ideas across, and they can often suggest, reveal, show or demonstrate their views without making them a matter of meaning. Speaker meaning, in our view, specifically involves using coordination to contribute information to conversation; it therefore involves distinctive knowledge, context and content. We use the contrast between implicatures due to discourse coherence (meant, in our view) from those due to metaphorical interpretation and "flouting the maxims" (not meant, in our view) to show how our view clarifies the analysis of meaning and intention in dialogue.
The Dynamic Lexicon: How Word Meanings and Conceptual Pacts are Negotiated
In Ludlow (2000, 2005, 2006), I made the case for what I called microlanguages – one-off languages that are constructed on the fly by discourse participants. The key idea behind this was that the standard “static” view of the lexicon is badly mistaken and that discourse participants routinely mint new linguistic items, and that so-called common coins are placed in and out of circulation all the time. Crucially, (i) the meanings of common coin lexical items are underdetermined, and (ii) their meanings are dynamic – in the sense that their meanings are narrowed and broadened, sharpened and loosened on a conversation-by-conversation basis. Borrowing a term from Recanati, we can say that word meanings undergo modulation.
In these lectures I explain the mechanisms underlying the dynamic lexicon and then pursue the consequ
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